The seven genders you don’t know are more than just men and women
Most people think there are only two genders in the world: men and women.A few years ago, Germany became the first country in Europe to identify with a third gender. The news made the New York Times. This shows that the human world is not binary.A person’s biological sex is related to many factors, such as chromosomes, reproductive organs, hormone levels and so on, indicating that a person is born with sexual characteristics.Human cells with normal chromosomes have 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, which are divided into X and Y chromosomes.Sex chromosomes XX are female and XY are male.The scientists found a sex-determining region of the Y chromosome, also known as the testicular determinant, at the end of the Y chromosome’s short arm.The SRY gene, which activates other genes involved, causes immature gonads to develop into testes, which produce androgens and stimulate the formation of male genitalia.Instead, when the gene fails to activate, the gonads develop into ovaries, which produce estrogen to form female genitalia.There are seven other types of people that doctors have found through actual cases, and they can distinguish the sex of a person simply by looking at the lack of chromosomes.Normally, the sex chromosomes in sperm are either X or Y, and the sex chromosomes in egg cells are X.But sometimes they can go wrong during meiosis, resulting in abnormal numbers of neutral chromosomes in sperm or egg cells, or structural abnormalities.Turner’s syndrome A sex type with only one X chromosome in a somatic cell, also known as Turner’s syndrome.External manifestations are female and have ovaries, but due to the lack of an X chromosome, so often later short stature, ovarian and chest dysplasia.Eventually, they become infertile.Sex reversal syndrome is caused by a mutation in the SRY gene on the Y chromosome.When the SRY gene disappears from the Y chromosome, humans, though genetically XY, appear female and have female ovaries.When the SRY gene is inserted into the X chromosome, although the human gene is XX, it appears to be male and has male testicles.In this case the sex of the genotype is the opposite of the sex of the gonad.Although these people have normal reproductive organs, they are often stunted due to genetic problems and their sex characteristics are not obvious.5α -reductase deficiency (5α -reductase deficiency) is a familial autosomal recessive disorder caused by failure of androgen conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) due to type 2 5α -reductase deficiency in early development.Therefore, the external genitalia and prostate can not be normal development in the early stage, but also can not maintain the male secondary sex characteristics.At the very beginning, the external male genitalia are not obvious. The external male genitalia are female, and they are often raised as girls.In adolescence and adulthood, secondary sexual characteristics gradually develop, and adulthood is the same as normal men except for lower levels of DHT and sperm.A chimera is a type in which two sex glands, testis and ovaries, produce both estrogen and androgens, and develop two sets of reproductive organs.According to the investigation since 1975, there have been only 14 cases in total, some people have full fertility, very few people can produce sperm and eggs at the same time, but there are no instances of self-fertilization in humans.The cause of the condition is unclear, but scientists suspect it may have something to do with the abnormal exchange of XY chromosomes or genetic mutations.Kremer’s syndrome, also known as submale syndrome, affects about 1 in 1000 newborn boys.There is an extra X chromosome in this male sex chromosome.Before puberty, they show no obvious abnormalities, and when they reach puberty, their testes are usually smaller, and when they reach adulthood, they show azoospermia.In addition, people with Creutzfeldt-Syndrome tend to be tall, with weak muscles, relatively long limbs and fair skin, and some people will have the characteristics of male breasts.Superfemale syndrome and supermale syndrome Superfemale syndrome refers to women with one or more X chromosomes, the most common genotype being XXX.Supermale syndrome refers to men with one or more Y chromosomes, the most common genotype being XYY.People with superfemale and supermale syndromes are normal in appearance, sexual function and fertility.Most people probably go through life unaware that they have an abnormal number of sex chromosomes.However, some women may experience varying degrees of amenorrhea or premature menopause.Some men will be taller and have a thicker beard, while others will be more impulsive and aggressive.We should treat male and female issues rationally, respect people of each gender, and do not mock or discriminate against them.Just as scientists do not agree that the SRY gene is the only way to determine sex.Take gender out of the equation, and we’re all human, one species, and we have the power to perpetuate our civilization on this blue planet.