The Ancient “Right of Name” from a Dream of Red Mansions
In ancient China, under the patriarchal society of rigid hierarchy and orderly hierarchy, people’s words and deeds were strictly regulated, and their names were naturally stereotyped.Compared with today, the name of ancient people is not only a personal code, but also endowed with more connotations and hidden rich legal rules.There are hundreds of characters with family names in a Dream of Red Mansions. The names of the characters in the book also contain many ancient naming rules.Legal Functions of surnames Names correspond to families and given names to individuals.Under the patriarchal system, the effect of the surname is far greater than the given name, and even many people, such as women, have only the surname, no given name.According to written law, surnames serve two functions: one is to “separate marriage”.”The same surname does not marry” in the Western Zhou Dynasty into the ceremony, in the Tang Dynasty into the law.In the Qing Dynasty, when a Dream of Red Mansions was written, the Regulations of the Great Qing Dynasty stipulated that “people with the same surname should marry each other with 60 years of matrimony and divorce (the women should return to the family and become an official with financial gifts).”The second is the distinction between high and low.The ruling class, especially the emperor, divided the family name of a country into several grades through political reforms or decrees to highlight their nobility.For example, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei dynasty, who established the sequence of family names, divided the world’s surnames into three, six and nine grades, emphasizing that “the noble inherit the noble, and the lowly inherit the lowly”, which was used by later emperors.Surnames are also governed by common law.According to the common law of the people, even if the same surname, but not “same spectrum”, “same ancestor”, there are still noble or inferior.Therefore, ancient people often adopted the methods of “ancestral recognition”, “tong Pu” and “lian Zong” to improve the status of family name, and even achieve the purpose of owning power to your family.In the second episode of a Dream of Red Mansions, Jia Yucun said to Leng Zixing that he and the Jia family “since Jia Fu in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the tribes have flourished in every province…If the glory of a nation, but is the same spectrum “.And eventually joined jia Fu, “bright and loving” reinstated his old post, and then promoted step by step.The sixth chapter also wrote that The family of Wang Dog, the son-in-law of Liu’s grandmother, lived together with Mrs. Wang’s family, and took this opportunity to visit Jia’s house for “autumnal wind” (that is, to obtain property from people by using various connections).Taboo taboo is the expression of inequality between people in ancient times.It is recorded in the Spring and Autumn Annals that naming, writing and even talking should be “taboo for respected people, relatives and sages”.Taboos, including public taboos and family taboos, first existed as rites.Public taboos generally mean avoiding the names of emperors and Confucius, while family taboos mean avoiding the names of respected family elders.”The Law of Tang Shuyi” will avoid the taboo of ritual legal, through the “letter played the matter taboo” article (public taboo) and “house number official made father’s name” article (home taboo) legal protection of ritual.One of the “house number official name made father ancestor name” provision: “all house number, official name made father ancestor name, and take the glory of the house……One year.”That is, the name of the official and the place name of the official shall not be the same as the name of his father or grandfather, otherwise it is a crime.Song to Tang Xiao GUI Cao Sui.However, this system caused the conflict between the imperial power and the paternal power, and was not wanted by the authorities, so it was abandoned by the laws of Ming and Qing Dynasties.Although the law is not correct, the people of a polite country will still avoid the home as a standard.A Dream of Red Mansions embodies taboo feudal rules in many places.The second time, Daiyu (mother’s name is Jia Min) would “subtract one or two strokes” when writing min and pronounce min as “secret”;The 54th time of the storyteller when Wang Xifeng face said “Feng Qiluan” in the “Wang Xifeng” hurriedly make amends;The 62nd time, Baoyu and her sisters play “shoot answer” game, Baoyu “cover” a “treasure” word, baoyu through “treasure” thought of the “jade” of the spiritual jade, so it is associated with both “jade” and “chai” word of the ancient poem “knock off the jade Chai red candle cold”, and said with a smile: “my sister took me as a joke, but I shot.Say it out sister don’t angry, is sister’s taboo, ‘chai’ word is.”These are household taboos.Different from “the official name of the house made the name of the father and the father”, “the letter played matter taboo” continued to the Qing Dynasty, “The Qing Statute” provides: “If the letter played matter, the royal name and temple mistake, the staff eighty.Those who commit errors shall be flogged at forty.And if he offend because of his name, one hundred rods.His royal name and temple taboo, similar voice, different words, and there are two words to stop a word, are not guilty.”It can be seen that the feudal law was very severe for those who violated the public taboo.In the yonggan years of Cao Xueqin’s life, there were numerous cases of literary prison for violating taboo prohibition.In fact, a Dream of Red Mansions also involves public taboos. In many of its early copies, the characters such as “xuan”, “yun” and “hong” were deliberately written in order to avoid the taboo of Emperor Kang, Yong and Gan.Naming the Zhou Dynasty, naming must comply with the “five” “six avoid” rules, “five” refers to the name of the five aspects of the source, namely “faith” “righteousness” “phase” “false” “class”;”Six Bys” requires names to avoid the names of countries, mountains and rivers, officials, diseases, sacrifices (animals) and sacrificial vessels.After qin and han dynasties, gate system make the society pay more attention to society and family background, which has given rise to Tiao word (position in the family hierarchy word), Tiao word is much by ancestors worked out in advance according to the generational and classified as family tree, in the form of a home gift or French fixed, forming rules “fan”, every family all certificates to future generations named “fan” word, no honour ZuGui Syria is not allowed into the family lineage.In the process of family extension, the naming rules of “fan” make the clansmen of the same branch clearly calculate their lineage and seniority through “on the generation of characters”, which has become the best way to distinguish the superior and inferior.”A dream of Red Mansions” jia family as a poem ritual zangying clan, the name of the descendants is strictly in accordance with the rules of the generation of characters: Ningrong two public Jia Yan and Jia Yuan, “water” word generation, and are three “water”;The second Jia Daihua, Jia Daishan, Jia Dairu and so on are “dai” generation, and “Dai” in the middle;The third, Jia She, Jia Jing, Jia Zheng, Jia Min, etc., are “wen” generation, and “Wen” is on the right;The fourth generation of Jia Zhen, Jia Zhu, Jia Lian and Jia Huan are the generation of “jade”, and “jade” is next to the left. Jia Baoyu belongs to this generation, and should be from “Fan”, but he chose a double character, but there is still “jade”, this is a special case, in order to mirror “Stone” and highlight its leading role;The fifth generation jia Rong, Jia LAN (LAN), Jia Yun are “grass” generation, and “grass” in the head.”Fan” word name, can be the same generation of men and women “Fan” a word, such as Jia Min and Jia Zheng, can also be female alone “fan” a word, such as Yuanchun, Yingchun, Tanchun, Xichun, not “fan” peers of the “jade” word, and “fan” “spring” word, also in line with the “fan” word name rules.Name change in the feudal society, in addition to their own change, more noble people such as the emperor, parents to humble people such as subjects, descendants, slaves name.The emperor could give his family name or given name to praise him, such as Zheng He, ma Sanbao, who was famous for his voyages to the Western Seas.If the emperor gave the state name, it was the highest honor for the recipient, such as Liu Bang, in addition to granting Xiang Bo the title of marquis, also granted the family name Liu.Of course, the emperor could also demote the surnames of his subjects to an evil one as a punishment. For example, when Wu Zetian became emperor, she demoted the li descendants, who had opposed her arbitrary power, to the name of asps.In aristocratic families, the patriarch, like the emperor, has the right to decide the name of his descendants and servants, and the right to change the name.In a Dream of Red Mansions, the people who were renamed are mainly servants, which fully reflects their low legal status.In the second time, the real name of the attacker was Pearl, and his surname was Hua. Baoyu changed his name to Shizhen because of the poem “Flower gas attacks people to know that the day is warm”.On the 21st time, Baoyu asked hui Xiang who gave her her name. Hui xiang replied, “My original name was Rue Xiang, but hua’s big sister changed it to Hui Xiang.”Because Baoyu is angry, he said, “Seriously should be called ‘unlucky’ just, what hui xiang!”He was renamed si ‘er because he was the fourth in his family.In the 63rd session, Baoyu changed fangguan’s name to “Xiongnu” and “Yelu Xiongnu”, resulting in fangguan often being called “wild Donkey”.Later, Baoyu renamed fangguan “Wendulina” and so on.In addition to Baoyu, the masters in the book almost all changed their names to people: Lin Daiyu changed the name of the servant girl polly given by Jia’s mother to Zijuan;After Yinglian was sold to Xue’s family, she was renamed Xiang Ling by Baochai, later as Xue Pan’s side room, and then renamed Qiu Ling by xia Jingui, the principal wife;Xiang Yun changed the name of kui guan to “Wei Ying Gong”.According to modern civil law, the content of name right includes at least three aspects: the right to decide, the right to use and the right to rename the name.But in ancient times, as servants, slaves obviously did not have the right to make the right to change their names, and the use of names, it is difficult to call “right”.Therefore, the feudal society’s right of name is only the exclusive right of the powerful.In addition to being renamed, many servants’ names themselves do not have the meaning of name protection, such as Lai Da, Lai Er, second sister, third sister, Si er, wu er, dog er, Wang er, etc.This is especially true for actors and actresses.The twelve little actors bought for yuanchun had only stage names with the character “guan”, such as civil officer and Ling officer, who made a living by busking. They were also sold from one place to another without personal freedom, not to mention the right to name.The stage name is the shackle of these actors’ social status, but also an insult to their personality.The ancient society was a status society. It marked the identity of each ethnic group and individual through the name, carrying on the Occident, carrying on the uprig, carrying on the uprig, carrying on the uprig and carrying on the uprig.The ancient law is ethical law, and the name is the symbol of status. Only the emperor enjoys the absolute right of name, while the name of the parents and elders is maintained by the relativity of family law and ceremony, while the name of the untouchable is only a code name, not “right of name”.